Re: What are these photos called and what lighting
Although I'm late replying to this, here is my two cents worth. The shots are probably initially taken with a color checker and gray cards. That makes it easier once the photographer gets the lighting right to minimize post processing. It also is easier to set white balance in camera with a color checker of some kind, again minimizing color problems in post processing. Anything that can be done in camera or with lighting is done. Product shots like these can be managed in a short amount of time; and the retoucher is left with a bit less to do. A good photographer can get pretty much what he/she wants in camera.
To answer the question about lighting. It is FLAT lighting.